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", Murphy, Robert D., Michael J. [146][147] After the accident, the Air Force took the B-2 fleet off operational status until clearing the fleet for flight status 53 days later on 15 April 2008. March 19, 2013 Military Aviation. The highly secretive US strategic bomber, the B-2 Spirit, has become a bit less of a mystery after the US military allowed footage to be recorded from inside its cabin for a new multimedia project. Bolton was allowed into the Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri, the permanent deployment site for the US fleet of B-2s as part of his work on the film. [136] The B-2s flew directly from the U.S. mainland across the Atlantic Ocean to Libya; a B-2 was refueled by allied tanker aircraft four times during each round trip mission. [7][66] At cruising altitude, the B-2 refuels every six hours, taking on up to 50 short tons (45,000 kg) of fuel at a time. This stealth comes from a combination of reduced acoustic, infrared, visual and radar signatures (multi-spectral camouflage) to evade the various detection systems that could be used to detect and be used to direct attacks against an aircraft. [79][83] The B-2 features a sophisticated GPS-Aided Targeting System (GATS) that uses the aircraft's APQ-181 synthetic aperture radar to map out targets prior to deployment of GPS-aided bombs (GAMs), later superseded by the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM). Goodall, James C. "The Northrop B-2A Stealth Bomber.". ", "AGM-158 JASSM Cruise Missiles: FY 2011 Orders. ", "B-2s return to flight after safety pause. The B-2 Systems Engineering Case Study describes the application of systems engineering during the concept exploration, design, and development of the USAF B-2 Spirit stealth bomber. [64], Although the Air Force previously planned to operate the B-2 to 2058, their FY 2019 budget moved up its retirement to "no later than 2032". Moore was the last bomber gunner believed to have shot down an enemy aircraft with machine guns in aerial combat. [71][72] The YB-49 also had a small radar cross-section. The B-2 is the only acknowledged aircraft that can carry large air-to-surface standoff weapons in a stealth configuration. Zenith Imprint, 1999. [121][122] The hangars are built by American Spaceframe Fabricators Inc. and cost approximately US$5 million apiece. [156], Data from USAF Fact Sheet,[7] Pace,[157] Spick[66], Sources: B-2 Spirit (Pace),[163] Fas.org[164], "B-2" and "Stealth Bomber" redirect here. Senator, representing Massachusetts. The aircraft was severely damaged by fire while on the ground and underwent 18 months of repairs in order to enable it to fly back to the mainland for more comprehensive repairs. It later served in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Libya. ", Capaccio, Tony. This viewing was heavily restricted, and guests were not allowed to see the rear of the B-2. This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 15:45. Ages: 12 years and up . B-2 SPIRIT BOMBER & B-52 View from Cokcpit IN ACTION - YouTube New images will be taken and uploaded as time and resources allow. [123] The B-2 reached initial operational capability (IOC) on 1 January 1997. ", "USAF updates firefighter training and equipment following B-2 tailpipe fire", "The US Navy -- Fact File: AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW)", "New Video Of B-2 Bomber Dropping Mother Of All Bunker Busters Sends Ominous Message", "Air Force names final B-2 bomber 'Spirit of America", "Air Force, Options to Retire of Restructure the Force would Reduce Planned Spending, NSIAD-96-192. 4.6 out of 5 stars 7. MissionThe B-2 Spirit is a multi-role bomber capable of delivering both conventional and nuclear munitions. Click on the links below to view aircraft interior images. [7] The B-2 is highly automated, and one crew member can sleep in a camp bed, use a toilet, or prepare a hot meal while the other monitors the aircraft, unlike most two-seat aircraft. [59] In 2012, Air Force Chief of Staff General Norton Schwartz stated the B-2's 1980s-era stealth technologies would make it less survivable in future contested airspaces, so the USAF is to proceed with the Next-Generation Bomber despite overall budget cuts. [7] As of September 2013[update] the longest combat mission has been 44.3 hours. [5] As of 2018, twenty B-2s are in service with the United States Air Force, which plans to operate them until 2032, when the Northrop Grumman B-21 Raider is to replace it. “The B-2 … North Branch, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 2003. ", "Why Can't the Air Force Build an Affordable Plane? [14] An estimated US$23 billion was secretly spent for research and development on the B-2 by 1989. [41] Dellums and Kasich, in particular, worked together from 1989 through the early 1990s to limit production to 21 aircraft, and were ultimately successful. Posted by on June 24, 2019. [3] The procurement cost per aircraft as detailed in GAO reports, which include spare parts and software support, was $929 million per aircraft in 1997 dollars. b-2 stealth bomber flyover - stealth bomber stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images may 30, 2006 - a b-2 spirit moves into position for refueling from a kc-135 stratotanker over the pacific ocean. [121][122], The first operational aircraft, christened Spirit of Missouri, was delivered to Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri, where the fleet is based, on 17 December 1993. The B-2 Spirit long-range bomber, distinctive for its unusual ‘flying wing’ hull, has been operational since 1997. To avoid the possibility of suspicion, components were typically purchased through front companies, military officials would visit out of uniform, and staff members were routinely subjected to polygraph examinations. [49] Nonetheless, Congress did not approve funding for additional B-2s. The solution was to fly larger formations, putting even more aircraft under the guns of capable German fighters. [61], In 2013, the USAF contracted for the Defensive Management System Modernization program to replace the antenna system and other electronics to increase the B-2's frequency awareness. Something I’ve been curious about regarding the B-52 and actually the other large bombers of the USAF (B-1 and B-2). [11] Northrop also had a classified technology demonstration aircraft, the Tacit Blue in development in 1979 at Area 51. your own Pins on Pinterest 95 $154.95 $154.95. In July 2008, the B-2's onboard computing architecture was extensively redesigned; it now incorporates a new integrated processing unit (IPU) that communicates with systems throughout the aircraft via a newly installed fiber optic network; a new version of the operational flight program software was also developed, with legacy code converted from the JOVIAL programming language to standard C.[50][51] Updates were also made to the weapon control systems to enable strikes upon moving targets, such as ground vehicles. The B-2's stealth enables the reduction of supporting aircraft that are required to provide air cover, Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses and electronic countermeasures, making the bomber a "force multiplier". "US to add one B-2 plane to 20 plane fleet. posted on Apr, 14 2005 @ 05:50 PM link . The aircraft is also deployed by the US Strategic Command for show-of-force flights. I did a search (which brought up a lot of topics) but I don't think this has been posted here before. [34][35] Maintenance costs are about $3.4 million a month for each aircraft. [130], The B-2's combat use preceded a U.S. Air Force declaration of "full operational capability" in December 2003. However with refuel, that range can be extended nearly indefinitely. EVOlution Graphics B.V. Hilversum, The Netherlands KvK 60955899 VAT Nr. From Australia. The bomber's design was changed in the mid-1980s when the mission profile was changed from high-altitude to low-altitude, terrain-following. [3] Total procurement costs averaged $929 million per aircraft, which includes spare parts, equipment, retrofitting, and software support. Since every element in cockpit, navigator station, and bomb aimer station is named when the cursor is moved over it, the museum visitor has a vast amount of information to discover. [81], The B-2's combat debut was in 1999, during the Kosovo War. [16] After the evaluations of the companies' proposals, the ATB competition was narrowed to the Northrop/Boeing and Lockheed/Rockwell teams with each receiving a study contract for further work. [85] The onboard DMS is capable of automatically assessing the detection capabilities of identified threats and indicated targets. [78], To address the inherent flight instability of a flying wing aircraft, the B-2 uses a complex quadruplex computer-controlled fly-by-wire flight control system that can automatically manipulate flight surfaces and settings without direct pilot inputs in order to maintain aircraft stability. Are there crew-rest areas on the B2?Does anyone know how a crew could have possibly sat … The B2 – Bomber A Closer Look at the B2 Configuration David Cross, Joel Faber, and Raul Telles AOE 4124 No operational B-2s have been retired by the Air Force to be put on display. [58] As of 2011, the AGM-158 JASSM cruise missile is an upcoming standoff munition to be deployed on the B-2 and other platforms. The aircraft was destroyed, a hull loss valued at US$1.4 billion. [76] Innovations such as alternate high frequency material (AHFM) and automated material application methods were also incorporated to improve the aircraft's radar-absorbent properties and reduce maintenance requirements. The winding-down of the Cold War in the latter portion of the 1980s dramatically reduced the need for the aircraft, which was designed with the intention of penetrating Soviet airspace and attacking high-value targets. [121] B2SS hangars are known to have been deployed to Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia and RAF Fairford. [16] The Northrop proposal was code named "Senior Ice" and the Lockheed proposal code named "Senior Peg". It was a very difficult to get it right. The mission, part of the annual South Korean–United States military exercises, was the first time that B-2s overflew the Korean peninsula. The Northrop (later Northrop Grumman) B-2 Spirit, also known as the Stealth Bomber, is an American heavy strategic bomber, featuring low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses. Staff working on the B-2 in most, if not all, capacities have to achieve a level of special-access clearance, and undergo extensive background checks carried out by a special branch of the Air Force. [104] The B-2 is vulnerable to visual interception at ranges of 20 nmi (23 mi; 37 km) or less. [110], RCS reduction as a result of shape had already been observed on the Royal Air Force's Avro Vulcan strategic bomber,[111] and the USAF's F-117 Nighthawk. join. [67] The B-2 stored in a $5 million specialised air-conditioned hangar to maintain its stealth coating. "Defense worker loses job over his ties to India". [7] During this war, six B-2s flew non-stop to Yugoslavia from their home base in Missouri and back, totaling 30 hours. [86] In July 2009, Northrop Grumman reported the B-2 was compatible with the equipment necessary to deploy the 30,000 lb (14,000 kg) Massive Ordnance Penetrator (MOP), which is intended to attack reinforced bunkers; up to two MOPs could be equipped in the B-2's bomb bays with one per bay,[87] the B-2 is the only platform compatible with the MOP as of 2012. [7] Originally designed to deliver nuclear weapons, modern usage has shifted towards a flexible role with conventional and nuclear capability. For the first time, we now know what the inside of a B-2 Spirit bomber cockpit looks like. Defense contractor Northrop Grumman has released never-before-seen high-definition video of the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber in flight. The bomber was very successful in Afghanistan and very successful in the early parts of the wars in Iraq and Libya,” Michelson added. Although other detection measures existed, such as human observation, infrared scanners, acoustic locators, their relatively short detection range or poorly-developed technology allowed most aircraft to fly undetected, or at least untracked, especially at night. Dawson, T.W.G., G.F. Get it as soon as Fri, Dec 11. How the B-2 Spirit Was Designed to be the Ultimate Stealth Bomber. ", "US Air Force combat fleet's true operational costs revealed", "Key Senate Backer of Stealth Bomber Sees It in Jeopardy. The American heavy bomber doctrine that evolved through the 1930s centered on daylight precision bombing, though in operations “precision” would be a relative term, with Eighth Air Force heavy bombers dropping 50 percent of their bombs more than 1,500 feet from their targets. Die Northrop B-2 Spirit ist ein vierstrahliger strategischer Bomber des US-amerikanischen Herstellers Northrop.Die als Nurflügler ausgelegte B-2 ist der bekannteste Tarnkappenbomber (englisch stealth bomber) und gilt als das bei weitem teuerste Kampfflugzeug der Welt. ", "Semantic Designs Aligns with Northrop Grumman to Modernize B-2 Spirit Bomber Software Systems", "Northrop Grumman Adding Mobile Targets to B-2 Bomber Capabilities. Both during development and in service, considerable effort has been devoted to maintaining the security of the B-2's design and technologies. or Best Offer. ", "Flight Control Actuation System Integrator for the B-2 Spirit. [19] The Air Force originally planned to procure 165 of the ATB bomber. All 21 copies brought to Block 30 standard. and S.P. [36] An August 1995 GAO report disclosed that the B-2 had trouble operating in heavy rain, as this rain could damage the aircraft's stealth coating, causing procurement delays until an adequate protective coating could be found. Crickmore, Paul and Alison J. Crickmore, "Nighthawk F-117 Stealth Fighter". Other transport. B-2s have made periodic appearances on ground display at various air shows. Kenagy, David N., Christopher T. Bird, Christopher M. Webber and Joseph R. Fischer. The first aircraft, Spirit of Missouri, was delivered Dec. 17, 1993. The decision to retire the B-2 early was made because the small fleet of 20 is considered too expensive per plane to retain, with its position as a stealth bomber being taken over with the introduction of the B-21 Raider starting in the mid-2020s. [3], Because of its considerable capital and operating costs, the project was controversial in the U.S. Congress. GAO/NSIAD-95-164. President Carter became aware of these developments during 1977, and it appears to have been one of the major reasons the B-1 was canceled. The case examines and explores the systems engineering process as applied by the Air Force B-2 System Program Office, the prime contractor, Northrop, and the two major As a result, the flight control computers calculated an inaccurate airspeed, and a negative angle of attack, causing the aircraft to pitch upward 30 degrees during takeoff. Subscribe to RT newsletter to get stories the mainstream media won’t tell you, Screenshot from video. The toilet on a B-52.... depends on which models you’re referring to. Bombers are almost always designed with range in mind, but the unique design of the B-2 Spirit lends itself to extreme long range operations. Inside that black world, thousands of people worked their wonder creating a stealth bomber unlike anything the aerospace world had ever seen. In 2008, a B-2 was destroyed in a crash shortly after takeoff, though the crew ejected safely. The teamwork and coordination involved between the ground and the pilots and between the pilots themselves, between the planners and the pilots – I’ve never seen anything like it,” he said. Only 2 left in stock - order soon. 5.0 out of 5 stars 1. C $23.95. [25] Northrop (now Northrop Grumman) was the B-2's prime contractor; major subcontractors included Boeing, Hughes Aircraft (now Raytheon), GE, and Vought Aircraft.[7]. The concept was to build an aircraft with an airframe that deflected or absorbed radar signals so that little was reflected back to the radar unit. I know a former USAF B-52 crew member who participated in Northern Patrols where B-52’s flew with nukes 24/7 up through Canada and the Artic Cirlce – a 30 hour mission was routine. [27], In October 2005, Noshir Gowadia, a design engineer who worked on the B-2's propulsion system, was arrested for selling B-2 related classified information to foreign countries. In February 2010, another serious incident involving a B-2 occurred at Andersen Air Force Base. Also on rt.com US Strategic Command boasts about its bombs in disturbing New Year message ", "Kasich still touts opposition to stealth bomber", "Zell Miller's Attack on Kerry: A Little Out Of Date. [75] For comparison, the B-1B has a crew of four and the B-52 has a crew of five. ", "How Russia Could Someday Shootdown an F-22, F-35 or B-2 Stealth Bomber", "VI - STEALTH AIRCRAFT: EAGLES AMONG SPARROWS? [127] On 7 May 1999, a B-2 dropped five JDAMs on the Chinese Embassy, killing several staff. Picture detail for B 52 Stratofortress, Military Aircraft: Title: B 52 Stratofortress, Military Aircraft; Date: June 24, 2019; Size: 152kB; Resolution: 1024px x 949px; More Galleries of B 52 Stratofortress, Military Aircraft. [121][122] In 2003, the B2SS program was managed by the Combat Support System Program Office at Eglin Air Force Base. ", B-2 Stealth Bomber article on How It Works Daily, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Northrop_Grumman_B-2_Spirit&oldid=992112621, High-altitude and long endurance aircraft, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2012, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from September 2013, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A U.S. Air Force B-2 Spirit flying over the Pacific Ocean in May 2006. The majority of the B-2 is made out of a carbon-graphite composite material that is stronger than steel, lighter than aluminum, and absorbs a significant amount of radar energy. share: Ultron10. [12], By 1976, these programs had progressed to a position in which a long-range strategic stealth bomber appeared viable. [53] Changing the radar's frequency was required as the United States Department of Commerce had sold that radio spectrum to another operator. [21] MIT engineers and scientists helped assess the mission effectiveness of the aircraft under a five-year classified contract during the 1980s. It was responsible for destroying 33% of selected Serbian bombing targets in the first eight weeks of U.S. involvement in the War. ", USAF to Retire B-1, B-2 in Early 2030s as B-21 Comes On-Line. [56], In July 2010, political analyst Rebecca Grant speculated that when the B-2 becomes unable to reliably penetrate enemy defenses, the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II may take on its strike/interdiction mission, carrying B61 nuclear bombs as a tactical bomber. [78], The B-2, in the envisaged Cold War scenario, was to perform deep-penetrating nuclear strike missions, making use of its stealthy capabilities to avoid detection and interception throughout missions. For battlefield communications, both Link-16 and a high frequency satellite link have been installed, compatibility with various new munitions has been undertaken, and the AN/APQ-181 radar's operational frequency was shifted in order to avoid interference with other operators' equipment. It was a very difficult to get it right. The B-21 Raider is the first new Air Force bomber since 1988, the year the B-2A Spirit was unveiled. "Integrated review of stealth technology and its role in airpower". According to the Huygens–Fresnel principle, even a very flat plate would still reflect radar waves, though much less than when a signal is bouncing at a right angle. [67] "Forward operating locations" have been previously designated as Andersen Air Force Base in Guam and RAF Fairford in the United Kingdom, where new climate controlled hangars have been constructed. Figure 2 illustrates the planned bomber bed down locations and ", "The Air Force Announced It's Upgrading The One Plane It Needs To Bomb Iran. The resulting cooler air is conducted over a surface composed of heat resistant carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer and titanium alloy elements, which disperse the air laterally, in order to accelerate its cooling. Each B-2 flew a 34-hour, round-trip mission from Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri with 15 refuelings during the trip. [28] Gowadia was convicted and sentenced to 32 years in prison for his actions. Download the free app from the Apple Store Download the free app from the Google Play Store [38], The total "military construction" cost related to the program was projected to be US$553.6 million in 1997 dollars. ", "Debate on Dellums Amendment to 1998 Defense Authorization Act. Designed and manufactured by Northrop, later Northrop Grumman, the cost of each aircraft averaged US$737 million (in 1997 dollars). The systems and processes that you have to understand to operate the jet are enormous. [57] However, in March 2012, the Pentagon announced that a $2 billion, 10-year-long modernization of the B-2 fleet was to begin. [30] By the early 1990s, the Soviet Union dissolved, effectively eliminating the Spirit's primary Cold War mission. [124] Depot maintenance for the B-2 is accomplished by U.S. Air Force contractor support and managed at Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base. Mastercraft Collection Boeing B-2 Spirit United States Air Force Stealth Bomber Model Scale:1/150. Production-ready 3D Model, with PBR materials, textures, non overlapping UV Layout map provided in the package. Every seven years, this coating is carefully removed by being washed off with crystallised wheat starch so that the B-2's surfaces can be inspected for any dents or scratches. Halcyon. By 1992, Republican President George H. W. Bush called for the cancellation of the B-2 and promised to cut military spending by 30% in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union. ", "B-2 radar modernization program contract awarded. [32], In 1995, Northrop made a proposal to the USAF to build 20 additional aircraft with a flyaway cost of $566 million each. All rights reserved. ", "USAF Awards B-2 Radar Upgrade Production. This includes development, procurement, facilities, construction, and spare parts. Stylized B-2 Spirit stealth bomber base mesh 3D Model. The main area of improvement would be replacement of outdated avionics and equipment. A total of 21 aircraft were produced and one was lost in an accident in 2009. The total program cost averaged US$2.13 billion per aircraft. [125] The B-2 was the first aircraft to deploy GPS satellite-guided JDAM "smart bombs" in combat use in Kosovo. It shows an in-air refueling of a B-2 stealth bomber as viewed both from outside and inside the aircraft’s second pilot seat. It developed stealth technology, LO (low observables), fly-by-wire, curved surfaces, composite materials, electronic intelligence (ELINT), and Battlefield Surveillance Aircraft Experimental (BSAX). COCKPIT Here are a couple overall pictures to get us oriented.We are going to treat the Instrument Panels separately, so we'll just touch on them here. "More Stealth Bombers Mean Less Combat Power". [92], For safety and fault-detection purposes, an on-board test system is linked with the majority of avionics on the B-2 to continuously monitor the performance and status of thousands of components and consumables; it also provides post-mission servicing instructions for ground crews. [149] This was the first crash of a B-2 and the only loss as of 2020[update]. Why does the B-2 look so weird, and how does that help evade radar? [54] In July 2009, it was reported that the B-2 had successfully passed a major USAF audit. New images will be taken and uploaded as time and resources allow. The Northrop (later Northrop Grumman) B-2 Spirit, also known as the Stealth Bomber, is an American heavy strategic bomber, featuring low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses.Designed during the Cold War, it is a flying wing design with a crew of two. [1][4] The bomber can deploy both conventional and thermonuclear weapons, such as up to eighty 500-pound class (230 kg) Mk 82 JDAM Global Positioning System-guided bombs, or sixteen 2,400-pound (1,100 kg) B83 nuclear bombs. [152][153] At the time of the accident the USAF had no training to deal with tailpipe fires on the B-2s.[154]. [100], Northrop had investigated several means of applying directional control that would infringe on the aircraft's radar profile as little as possible, eventually settling on a combination of split brake-rudders and differential thrust. Print; Workbench; Community; Log in Library ... B2 Bomber. B2 Deployment: Stealth bombers being sent to Gulf The B2 Bomber Wing began practising on Tuesday for the deployment to the British Indian Ocean island of Diego Garcia and an airbase at Fairford in England, said a commander of the bomb wing. This technique, known as continuous curvature, was made possible by advances in computational fluid dynamics, and first tested on the Northrop Tacit Blue. Three B-2s dropped 40 bombs on a Libyan airfield in support of the UN no-fly zone. [13] Further studies were ordered in early 1978, by which point the Have Blue platform had flown and proven the concepts. [105], Reportedly, the B-2 has a radar cross-section (RCS) of about 0.1 m2 (1.1 sq ft). In 1984, a Northrop employee, Thomas Cavanaugh was arrested for attempting to sell classified information to the Soviet Union; the information was taken from Northrop's Pico Rivera, California factory. [6], The B-2 is capable of all-altitude attack missions up to 50,000 feet (15,000 m), with a range of more than 6,000 nautical miles (6,900 mi; 11,000 km) on internal fuel and over 10,000 nautical miles (12,000 mi; 19,000 km) with one midair refueling. The display airframe is marked to resemble Spirit of Ohio (S/N 82-1070), the B-2 used to test the design's ability to withstand extreme heat and cold. [65] It has significant advantages over previous bombers due to its blend of low-observable technologies with high aerodynamic efficiency and large payload. Event Horizon. [109] Radars operating at a lower frequency band (S or L band) are able to detect and track certain stealth aircraft that have multiple control surfaces, like canards or vertical stabilizers, where the frequency wavelength can exceed a certain threshold and cause a resonant effect. B2 (New York City bus) serving Brooklyn B2, the IATA airline designator code for Belavia Belarusian Airlines; B2, East coast district of Bray, Co.Wicklow, Ireland; B2 (İstanbul) - a commuter line in İstanbul, also known as the Sirkeci-Halkalı line. Discover (and save!) The Watermark *will not* appear on the artwork. ", "Stealth bomber classified documents missing. NL854134098B01 Download the free app from the Apple Store Download the free app from the Google Play Store (Photos derived from those taken by Lyle Jansma, AeroCapture Images, for the Cockpit360 app.)

Dream Whip Recipes With Jello, Deep Clean Washing Machine Vinegar, Heat Holders Socks Women's, B2 Bomber Crash 2017, Factors To Consider In Plating Egg Dishes,

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